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 II. Bordetellosis

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تاريخ التسجيل : 25/01/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: II. Bordetellosis   الجمعة أكتوبر 28, 2011 9:46 pm



II. Bordetellosis





A. Etiology: Bordetella bronchiseptica is a small gram-negative,
alpha-hemolytic, nonfermenting rod. Incidence of infection is high
with a low incidence of disease.







B. Transmission: Routes of transmission include aerosol and direct
contact. Many rabbits are asymptomatic carriers, and may harbor both Bordetella
and Pasteurella
.




C. Clinical Signs: Signs are similar to snuffles and include upper
respiratory infection with serous to mucopurulent nasal exudate and sneezing.
Pneumonia uncommonly develops.



D. Gross Pathology: The characteristic lesion is erythematous
nasal mucosa with adherent exudate.

E. Diagnosis: Definitive diagnosis is made by culture of the organism.
Smear and gram stain of nasal exudate may be helpful.

F. Treatment: scratch I love you




Enrofloxian (2.5 to 5.0 mg/kg bid for 5 to 7 days),

oxytetracycline (0.1 mg/ml drinking water) or

Tylosin (2 to 4 mg/kg IM
b.i.d., then s.i.d. for 3 to 5 days) are effective in reducing clinical
signs.


As with pasteurellosis, antibiotic therapy may have to be
repeated when rhinitis recurs, which may happen. Antibiotic therapy
does not eliminate the carrier state.


G. Control:

Isolation and treatment of sick animals, decreasing
stressful conditions, and preparation of and vaccination with an autogenous
bacterin are all adequate control measures.



The bacterin may not
eliminate the carrier state, but may help prevent expression of clinicaldisease.



BACTERIAL DIARRHEAL DISEASES

The initial approach to treating diarrhea in a rabbit is similar to
that used for companion animals, and is similar for all infectious etiologies.


Obtaining a thorough history is imperative. Questions to ask include
recent changes in the rabbits' environment, husbandry, diet, including
supplemental foods, antibiotics or home remedies.


Even the addition
of a new pet, especially a carnivore, can serve as a sufficient stressor.


A diagnostic workup should include a complete physical exam including abdominal
palpation, fecal flotation for coccidia, and fecal cultures. Ancillary
tests may include blood work, and abdominal radiographs (plain and contrast
studies) if warranted.


Supportive therapy should be directed at correcting
and maintaining hydration (via parenteral and oral fluid therapy) and stimulating
the appetite in an attempt to restore normal gut flora using live yogurt
cultures and fiber-containing treats.

Antibiotics should be judiciously
used as they may further upset the gut flora.



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II. Bordetellosis
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